What Are MPO Fiber Connectors?

MPO fiber connector is a passive component for optical fiber cable connection. It has been widely used in many projects and plays an important role in the optical fiber transmission system. In order to give full play to the role of MPO fiber connector in engineering applications, technicians should pay attention to the main structure and features of this connector, and master the basic working principle of MPO fiber connector so that the application of MPO fiber connector can be better put in practice and the development and innovation of optical fiber transmission system can be better promoted.

You may also see the term MTP used interchangeably with MPO. The term MTP is a registered trademark of the MPO connector offered by US Conec. The MTP is fully compliant with MPO standards and is described by US Conec as an MPO that has been engineered to very tight tolerances for improved performance. For the purpose of this discussion, we will refer to only MPO connectors since MTP connectors are considered to be MPO connectors.

MPO connector

Structure of MPO Fiber Connector

MPO is short for the industry acronym— “multi-fiber push on”. The MPO connector is a multi-fiber, and multichannel pluggable connector which is most commonly defined by two documents: IEC-61754-7 (the commonly sited standard for MPO connectors internationally) and EIA/TIA-604-5 (also known as FOCIS 5, is the most common standard sited for in the US). It is made up of a male plug , a female plug, and an adapter. The end of the male plug has two guide pins and a maximum of 72 guide holes, but the most common are 12 holes. When mating the connector, the spring mounted at the end of the core insert will provide a thrust on the core insert to lock it up with the adapter. The guide pins of the plug can restrict the relative position between the connectors, and ensure the optical fiber mating sequence is correct.

APC-MPO-connector-structure

Figure 1: Structure of MPO fiber connector

Features & Specifications

MPO connectors utilize precision molded MT ferrules, with metal guide pins and precise housing dimensions to ensure fiber alignment when mating. The MPO can be mass terminated in combinations of 4, 8, or 12 fiber ribbon cables. The MPO adapter comes standard in black. The single mode or multimode MPO products available from FS.COM are multifiber connections used in high-density backplane and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) applications in data and telecommunications system. The MPO connector, combined with lightweight ribbon cable, represents a huge technological advance over traditional multifiber cables. It’s lighter, more compact, easier to install, and less expensive, and it has lower insertion loss over traditional multifiber cables.

MPO connector specification

Figure 2: MPO connector specification

Application of MPO Fiber Connector

As mentioned, MPO connectors are compatible ribbon fiber connectors. MPO fiber connectors cannot be field terminated, thus MPO connector is usually assembled with fiber optic cable. MPO fiber optic cable is one of the most popular MPO fiber optic cable assemblies, which are now being widely used in data center to provide quick and reliable operation during signal transmission. MPO connectors can be found in the following applications:

  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • CATV and Multimedia
  • Active Device Interface
  • Premise installations
  • Optical Switch interframe connections
  • Interconnection for O/E modules
  • Telecommunication Networks
  • Industrial & Medical, etc.
Considerations to Select MPO Fiber Connector

With the drive of market requests. Various types of MPO connectors are being provided. Some basic aspects should be considered during the selection of a MPO connector. Firstly, pin option. MPO connectors have male and female design (as showed in the figure 1). Male connectors have two guide pins and female connectors do not. Alignment between mating ferrules of MPO connectors is accomplished using two precision guide pins that are pre-installed into the designated male connector. Secondly, fiber count. MPO connector could provide 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 64 or more interconnections, among which 12 and 24 are the most popular MPO connectors. In addition, like other fiber optic connectors, the selection of MPO fiber connectors should also consider fiber type and simplex or duplex design.

Conclusion

According to aforementioned introduction, we can see that MPO connector plays an important role in optical telecommunication as well as the high-density cabling solutions. If you are preparing to deploy network, it’s advisable that you can purchase quality MPO connector, MPO cables and MPO cassettes from FS.COM. For more details, please visit www.fs.com or contact us over sales@fs.com.

A Brief Overview to Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

In fiber optic communications, WDM (wavelength-division multiplexing) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light. This technique enables bidirectional communications over one strand of fiber as well as multiplication of capacity. Generally, WDM could be divided into CWDM (coarse wavelength division multiplexing) and DWDM (dense wavelength division multiplexing). Below part will give a brief introduction to DWDM.

Introduction

Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal carried at the same time on its own separate light wavelength. Using DWDM, up to 80 separate wavelengths or channels of data can be multiplexed into a light stream and transmitted on a single optical fiber. This process allows for multiple video, audio, and data channels to be transmitted over one fiber while maintaining system performance and enhancing transport systems. This technology responds to the growing need for efficient and capable data transmission by working with different formats, such as SONET/SDH, while increasing bandwidth.

http://tingteresa.blog.se/files/2017/07/DWDM-1.png

The fiber optic amplifier in DWDM system provides a cost efficient method of taking in and amplifying optical signals without converting them into electrical signals. In addition, DWDM amplifies a broad range of wavelengths in the 1550nm region. For example, with a DWDM system multiplexing 16 wavelengths on a single optical fiber, carriers can decrease the number of amplifiers by a factor of 16 at each regenerator site. Using fewer regenerators in long-distance networks results in fewer interruptions and enhanced efficiency.

Components

A basic Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing contains five main components:

1. DWDM Terminal Multiplexer: This device contains one wavelength converting transponder for each wavelength carried. It receives an input optical signal, converts it to an electrical signal and then retransmits it as an optical signal (a process abbreviated as O/E/O) using a 1550nm laser beam. The MUX (multiplexer) takes a number of 1550nm optical signals and places them on a single optical fiber. This terminal multiplexer may also contain an EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) to amplify the optical signal.

2. Intermediate Line Repeater: These are amplifiers placed every 80 to 100 kilometers to compensate for loss of optical power; amplification is done by an EDFA, usually consisting of several amplifier stages.

3. Intermediate Optical Terminal, or Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer: This is a remote site amplifier placed where the signal may have traveled up to 140 kilometers; diagnostics and telemetry signals are extracted or inserted.

4. DWDM Terminal Demultiplexer: This device breaks the multi-wave signal back into individual signals; these may be sent to O/E/O output transponders before being relayed to their intended destinations, i.e. client-layer systems.

5. Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC): This channel carries information about the multi-wave optical signal and may provide data about conditions at the site of the intermediate line repeater.

Features

DWDM has several key advantages:

  • Transparency—Because DWDM is a physical layer architecture, it can transparently support both TDM (Time Division Multiplex) and data formats such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), Gigabit Ethernet, Enterprise System Connection (ESCON), and Fibre Channel with open interfaces over a common physical layer.
  • Scalability—DWDM can leverage the abundance of dark fiber in many metropolitan area and enterprise networks to quickly meet demand for capacity on point-to-point links and on spans of existing SONET/SDH rings.
  • Dynamic provisioning—Fast, simple, and dynamic provisioning of network connections give providers the ability to provide high-bandwidth services in days rather than months.
  • Robust and reliable—Well-engineered DWDM systems offer component reliability, system availability and system margin.
Conclusion

To sum up, DWDM system is very important in optical communication. If you are still confused about it, feel free to consult customer service at FS.COM. We are willing to solve your puzzles and offer the right solution for you. FS.COM provides various kinds of WDM products, such as 10GBASE DWDM, 40 channel DWDM Mux, CWDM Mux/Demux module and so on. It is an excellent option for choosing CWDM and DWDM equipment.

CFP vs CXP: Complementary or Competitive?

Now, with the rapid development of technology, 100G Ethernet is becoming closer and closer to us. Fiber connectivity in higher-speed active equipment is being condensed and simplified with plug-and-play and hot-swap transceivers. And these transceivers are necessary to achieve the reliable and effective 100G Ethernet. Interfaces for 100G active equipment include CFP and CXP. So, what are CFP and CXP? And what’s the relationship between CFP and CXP? You may find the answer in this post.

Multipurpose CFP

The C form-factor pluggable (CFP) is a multi-source agreement (MSA) to produce a common form-factor for the transmission of high-speed digital signals. CFP was designed after the small form-factor pluggable transceiver (SFP) interface, but is significantly larger to support 100 Gbit/s.

The CFP form factor, as detailed in the MSA, supports both single mode and multimode fiber and a variety of data rates, protocols, and link lengths, including all the physical media-dependent (PMD) interfaces encompassed in the IEEE 802.3ba Task Force. For 40GbE, the optical interface of CFP transceiver consists of 40Gbase-SR4 for 100m and 40Gbase-LR4 for 10 km. The CFP 100GbE module has three kinds of PMD interfaces: 100Gbase-SR10 for 100 m, 100Gbase-LR4 for 10 km and 100Gbase-ER4 for 40 km. Its size of CFP is optimized for longer-reach interfaces and single-mode fiber applications. It is 120 mm long and 86 mm wide, which is twice the length and six times the width of a 10GbE SFP+. The package includes two electrical connectors. The connector itself has two rows of metal connectors located at the top and bottom, which greatly increased the density of the overall surface area.

CFP Huawei CFP-100G-LR4

Meanwhile, CFP transceiver has good performance in heat dissipation, which can result in less power consumption. The available optical modules of 100G in FS.COM includes CFP-100G-SR10, CFP-100G-LR4, CFP-100G-ER4, and CFP2-100G-LR4 (The following figure takes the HUAWEI optical module as an example). These transceivers can achieve different transmission distance by connecting to different optical fibers.

Product Number Interface Transmission Distance
CFP-100G-SR10 MTP/MPO 150m(OM4), 100m(OM3)
CFP-100G-LR4 LC duplex 10km
CFP-100G-ER4 LC duplex 40km
CFP2-100G-LR4 LC duplex 10km
High Density CXP

CXP optical modules are designed for use in data center, core-routing, and high-performance computing applications up to 120 Gigabit per second links over multimode fiber. They are compliant with the InfiniBand Trade Association (IBTA) CXP Specification, IEEE 802.3ba 100GBASE-SR10 and CPPI interfaces supporting 12 parallel, bi-directional data channels at rates from 1G/bs to 11.3Gb/s per channel.

The CXP transceiver is 45 mm in length and 27 mm in width, making it slightly larger than an CFP module. It includes 12 transmit and 12 receive channels in its compact package. This is achieved via a connector configuration similar to that of the CFP transceiver. It’s typically used with parallel multimode fibers, and the transmission distance is as high as 100 meters. Also take HUAWEI optical module (CXP-100G-SR10) as an example, and the parameters of this optical module is shown as follows.

Product Number CXP-100G-SR10 Supplier FS.COM
Package CXF Speed 120 Gbps
Wavelength 850nm Maximum Transmission Distance 150m(OM4), 100m(OM3)
Interface MTP/MPO-24 Laser Type 12x VCSEL
What’s the Relationship Between CFP and CXP?

Technically, the CFP optical modules will work with multimode fiber for short-reach applications, but it is not really optimized in size for the multimode fiber market, most notably because the multimode fiber market requires high faceplate density. The CXP optical module was created to satisfy the high-density requirements of the data center, targeting parallel interconnections for 12x QDR InfiniBand (120 Gbps), 100 GbE, and proprietary links between systems collocated in the same facility.

CFP transceiver and CXP transceiver not only share something in common but also share differences. In some cases, there exists competition between them, because CFP can also work with multimode fibers. And in some cases the CFP and CXP form factors are complementary, with the CFP likely gaining traction in applications like Ethernet switches, core routers, and optical transport equipment, and the CXP module covering the data center market. But in general, it depends on customers’ choice. If you are constructing a network that can accommodate a wide range of speeds,then CFP optical module is preferred; If it’s used for short distance, then CXP is needed.

Summary

According to the aforementioned introduction, I hope it will help you understand the 100GbE transceivers, whether CFP or CXP. Similarly, you could know the 40GbE transceiver through this post as the CFP and CXP also support the 40GbE. If you have any requirement of the related products, please contact us over sales@fs.com.

Differences Between Fiber Patch Cords and Fiber Pigtails

Fiber patch cords and fiber pigtails are two kinds of commonly used network connectivity components in fiber optic network. They share many common characteristics, and in some ways there are also some differences. To understand the similarities and differences will help you make the best choice for your application. This post will give you a better understanding of the differences between fiber optic pigtails and patch cords.

Fiber Patch Cord

A patch cord is a length of cable with connectors on each end that is used to connect end devices to power sources. Patch cords are made from either single or multi-fiber cables and connected at each end with fiber cable connectors. Sometimes fiber patch cables are called jumpers, especially if they are simplex or duplex. The connectors are selected to mate with the interfacing equipment or cable connectors. The fiber can be either tight or loose buffered and can be made of various diameters (1.2 mm to 3.0 mm are common).

fiber patch cable

Fiber Pigtails

Pigtails bridge a critical junction in the fiber-optic network. The fiber pigtail is a fiber cable with a factory installed connector on one end and an unterminated fiber on the other, so that the connector side can be linked to the equipment and the other side can be melted with optical cable fibers or stripped and fusion spliced to a single fiber of a multi-fiber trunk.

fiber pigtail

Structural Difference Between Fiber Patch Cords and Fiber Pigtails

Fiber optic patch cables and fiber optic pigtails structurally have much in common. They are both available in single mode and multi-mode, and they can be made into simplex and duplex. Besides, both fiber patch cords and pigtails can terminate with many kinds of fiber optic connectors, including FC, SC, ST, LC, MTRJ, MPO, MU, SMA, FDDI, E2000, DIN4, and D4.

FC, SC, ST, LC

The major physical difference between fiber patch cord and pigtail is that fiber patch cord is a fixed length piece of cable with fiber connectors on each end while fiber pigtail has fiber connectors on only one end of the cable. Fiber optic patch cords can be cut into shorter lengths to make two pigtails.

Applications of Fiber Patch Cords and Fiber Pigtails

Fiber optic patch cords and pigtail fibers provide interconnect and cross-connect of applications over installations in entrance facilities, telecommunications rooms, and data centers. They are available in OM4, OM3, OM2, OM1, or OS1/OS2 fiber types, and can meet the demands of Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet and high speed Fibre Channel. However, they have their respective application areas, too.

Fiber patch cords are commonly used to connect ports on fiber distribution frames (FDFs). They support network applications in main, horizontal and equipment distribution areas and are available in optical fiber riser cable (OFNR), and low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) rated jacket materials to comply with local cabling ordinances. They also support high speed (10/40 Gbs) telecommunications. Fiber optic patch cords can also be used in many areas, such as integrated optics, laser detection and display, and materials processing, etc.

Fiber optic pigtails support fusion splice field termination applications. They should be installed in the protected and splice needed place, so they are usually used with optical fiber management devices like optical distribution frame (ODF), splice closures and optical fiber distribution boxes. Applications of fiber pigtails are found everywhere, but most commonly in optical assemblages or optical components. For example, there are waterproof fiber optic pigtails with thick polyethylene (PE) jacket and large diameter used for outdoor applications.

Conclusion

Although patch cords and fiber pigtails look very similar, they still have some differences in structure and application. A better understanding of the differences can help you choose the right one in your application. If you are still confused about them, feel free to contact fs.com. All types of fiber optic patch cables and fiber pigtails can be found at FS.COM, which offer low insertion losses and excellent repeatability. And they can be manufactured to custom length.

Things You Should Know About Patch Cords

Definition

A patch cord or patch cable is a length of cable with connectors on each end that is used to connect end devices to power sources. These cables are mainly used to connect one electronic device to another. Inside the patch cord is glass core used for transmitting light. Outside the core is wrapped up glass envelope with lower refractive index so as to keep the fiber inside the core. The outer layer is covered with a thin plastic coat for protection.

Classification & Features

There are many types of patch cords, such as FC patch cords, LC patch cords, SC patch cords, and ST patch cords. Then what are the differences and features between them? Take FS.COM fiber patch cable as an example.

1. FC fiber patch cable. The external of it is strengthened by metal sleeve and ruggedized by screw buckle. It is usually used on ODF. Generally, telecommunications network would adopt FC connector, screwing a nut onto a adapter.

Pro: solidity, dust proof    Con: long time for installation

FC

2. SC fiber patch cable. It is a connector which has a rectangular enclosure, used for connecting GBIC optical modules. It is ruggedized through the method of plug pin latch without rotating. It’s mostly used in switches and routers. SC connectors are commonly used in general network.

Pro: direct plugging in/out, easy operation    Con: easy to fall out

SC

3. ST fiber patch cable. It’s commonly used in fiber distribution frame with its enclosure round, and it’s ruggedized with the help of turnbuckle. ST connectors are also commonly used in general network.

Pro: fixation    Con: brittleness

ST

4. LC fiber patch cable. It’s a connector connecting SFP optical modules. It adopts modular jack (RJ) latch method, which is convenient to operate. It’s often used in routers.

Pro: bend insensitive, efficient installation    Con: easily detached

LC

Application

Ethernet patch cable find many uses in a wide variety of industries and applications. Some uses of patch cords include: FTTH, LAN, fiber optic sensor, optical fiber communication system, fiber optic connection transmission equipment, national defense, telecommunication network, computer optical fiber network and optical test equipment, etc.

Using Tips

If you have no idea about how to install patch cords, then you should read the instructions and using tips before installation.

1. Before use, you should clean the ceramic ferrule and the core end face of patch cable up with alcohol and absorbent cotton.

2. While using, the minimum bending radius of fiber optic shouldn’t exceed 150mm.

3. Protect the core and the end face of the core from bruising and pollution. Put on a dust cap immediately after disassembly.

4. When laser signals are being transmitted, do not look directly at the optical fiber.

5. Patch cords should be replaced in time after man made or non-resistant damages.

6. Please read the instruction manual carefully before installing, and debug under the guidance of the engineer of manufacturers or dealers.

7. When optical network or system malfunctions, troubleshooting methodology could be adopted to test. A continuity testing could be put ahead when you do the test or exclude the malfunction of patch cords. In general, you can use visible laser light to judge the whole optical fibre link or use optical fiber insertion loss return instrument to test all the indexes. The index will tell whether the patch cord is normal or not.

Summary

This post gives a brief introduction to patch cables, and lists some products from FS.COM to throw light upon the classification and features of patch cables. Also it tells about the application and using tips of patch cables. I hope it may be helpful to you if you are a green hand fiber optic technician. If you would like to know more or would like assistance in choosing the right cabling infrastructure, welcome to visit our website www.fs.com for more detailed information. FS will provide more choices and better services for our clients.

What is an Optical Transceiver?

Definition

Optical transceiver, also known as fiber optic transciever, is a device that uses fiber optic technology rather than conventional electrical wire to send and receive data. It is made of optoelectronic devices, functional circuits and optical interfaces. Optoelectronic devices include two parts: transmitter and receiver. To put it simple, a fiber optic transceiver serves as a photoelectric converter. The transmitter converts an electrical signal into a light signal, and then the receiver converts the light signal into an electrical signal after transmission through the optical fiber. Fiber optics is a rapidly growing field and can communicate complex information faster than conventional methods of transferring data.

optical module

How Does It Work?

The optical transceiver module is composed of both a transmitter and a receiver that are arranged in parallel so that they can operate independently. In the fiber optics, the transmission of data is in the form of light, because the transceiver has electronic components to encode or decode data into light pulses and then sends them to the other end as electrical signals in order to be utilized by an electronic device. The transmitter converts an electrical signal into an optical signal, which is connected with a connector and transmitted through a fiber optic cable. The light entering from the end of the cable is connected to a receiver where a semiconductor detector converts the light back into an electrical signal.

transmitter-and-receiver

Package

According to the package, there are six common types of fiber optic transceivers popular in the market, namely GBIC, XFP, SFP, SFP+, XENPAK, and X2.

1. GBIC (Gigabit Interface Converter). GBIC is designed for hot-plug. It is an interchangeable product meeting international standards. GBIC optical modules are used widely before SFP package.

2. SFP (Small Form-factor Pluggable). SFP is an upgraded version of the early GBIC module. It features smaller volume and higher integration than GBIC fiber module. It is currently the most popular optical module in the market.

3. SFP+. SFP+ optical module has been upgraded based on SFP with a higher transmission rate, usually up to 8.5G or 10G.

4. XFP. XFP transceiver (10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable) is a hot-swappable, independent of the communication protocol optical transceiver. XFP is usually used for 10Gbps SONET/SDH, Fibre Channel, Gigabit Ethernet and other applications, but also for CWDM DWDM link.

5. XENPAK. XENPAK is a multisource agreement (MSA), instigated by Agilent Technologies and Agere Systems. It’s a 10 Gigabit Ethernet optical transceiver which is independent of transceiver circuits and optical components. It can be plugged into a router or switch. But now XENPAK has been replaced by more compact devices providing the same functionality.

6. X2. X2 transceiver is a 10Gbps modular fiber optic interface intended for use in routers, switches and optical transport platforms. X2 modules are smaller and consume less power than XENPAK modules, but larger and consume more energy than XFP and SFP+ transceivers.

differen types of transceivers

Optical Transceivers are Used in a Variety of Applications

One of the most important attributes of optical transceivers is their ability to be compatible in a variety of communication applications. Most manufacturers choose them because they fit in a small footprint, and they are reliable. Besides, compatibility is one of the most common considerations in fiber optic transceivers. Take SFP fiber optic transceiver as an example, a SFP fiber optic transceiver on a network device (such as a switch, router, media converter, or similar devices) provides the device with a modular interface so that the user can easily adapt to various fiber optic or copper networking standards. They are designed to support SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking), Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel, and other communications standards.

Conclusion

This article briefly tells about what an optical transceiver is, comprising its definition, its working mode, different types according to package and its usage. I hope it may be helpful to you!